Sunflower cake is a by-product of oil crops processing used for obtaining vegetable fat. In the process of extraction or processing on a press, the residues of grains are saturated with concentrated useful substances - albuminous substances, proteins and acquire a pleasant taste and smell. Therefore, such raw materials are used in animal farming for feeding livestock, fish and poultry. Each company producing vegetable oil simultaneously sells cake, as the demand for it is consistently high. And there are good reasons for this:
The cake contains up to 10% fat, which successfully replaces feed oils in the diet. And the content of valuable proteins can be up to 40%, which is important for building muscle mass.
The energy value is much higher than in standard feed.
Macronutrients have a positive effect on immunity, cardiovascular and reproductive systems of various animal species.
The use of oil cake is widespread throughout the world and the sunflower one is of the greatest demand, especially in our latitudes, since it is not only produced in the largest amount, which is logical, taking into account the current trends in the vegetable oil consumption, but also due to the excellent combination of price and quality. Also, this product is the most balanced in composition. Therefore, the technological process of making cake should be carried out strictly in accordance with the international GOST 80-96, developed in Minsk and adopted by most of the CIS countries. It characterizes the by-product obtained from treated sunflower seeds by pressing on auger equipment for extracting vegetable oil.
According to the standard, cake is a feed raw material for direct introduction into the animal ration or production of compound mixtures. As a result, the product must meet the requirements for protecting the life and health of livestock, fish and poultry, as well as not have a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, the quality of the cake and the compliance of the tested raw materials with this denomination are checked by the content of individual substances in the composition, which include:
- crude fiber, protein, fats;
- nitrogen, nitrates and nitrites - 450 and 10 mg/kg;
- moisture and volatile substances - max. 8.5%;
- fat and extractives;
- infestation with grain pests.
In order to ensure compliance, other GOSTs are also applied, related to the following parameters and patterns:
- technical conditions for the creation and operation of paper bags - the main means used for storage;
- checking the color, odor and foreign elements in the composition, including impurities of metal, ash, mercury, lead, cadmium;
- mineralization which allows determining toxicity.
Only strict adherence to technology guarantees the creation of a quality product that will not harm the animal and will benefit the breeder. The appearance can be of two types - "shell" or crushed cake. The color range is limited to shades of gray and brown. The main smell should not be joined by strange ones, regardless of their characteristics. After collecting seeds, they must undergo a radiological examination for compliance with the standards of sanitary services. At the same time, a study is being carried out for the presence of pesticides.
Oil cake can be called only the product, the percentage of substances in which will correspond to the following parameters, i.e. not less than the indicated values (all measurements were carried out in terms of absolutely dry matter):
- protein - 38%;
- crude fiber - 20%;
- energy value - 1.04 c.u.
For the production of cake, only certain varieties of sunflower can be used. Sale without containers or packing in bags of up to 30 kg with the obligatory indication:
- high hygroscopicity warnings;
- trade mark with the addresses of production facilities;
- product names;
- dates of manufacture (batch No.);
- weight without packaging;
- compliance with GOST.
The cake that meets all the requirements can be actively used at livestock farms and enterprises. The main thing is to comply with the norm. The mass fraction of such a product should not exceed 40-45% of the diet. This is useful both for laying hens and dairy cows for increasing milk yield and egg production, as well as for young animals, for which a complex of proteins, fats, vitamins and macronutrients will be helpful at correct growth and active mass increase.
Based on the materials of gelznt.ru